Phitsanulok (in Thai : พิษณุโลก) is an important and historic city in lower northern Thailand located approximately 377 km north of Bangkok and is the capital of Phitsanulok Province, which stretches all the way to the Laotian border. Phitsanulok is one of the oldest cities in Thailand, founded over 600 years ago. It is probably best known as the birthplace of King Naresuan, who freed the country from Burmese domination in the late 16th century, and his brother and su ccessor King Ekathosarot (Sanphet III). As the cross-road between the northern and central regions of the country, it has long been important both for political and strategic reasons, and was fought over many times in centuries past.
Phitsanulok was the capital of Thailand for 25 years during the reign of King Boromma Trailokanat of Ayutthaya. Located on the banks of the Nan River, the city was originally a small Khmer outpost known as Song Kwae, before the Khwae Noi River changed its course in the 11th century AD. Phitsanulok was also a provincial center of the Angkorian Empire during the Angkorian period.
Phitsanulok is home to Naresuan University and Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University, as well as to a major Royal Thai Army base. Phitsanulok is primarily flat lands with some hills. The eastern portion of the city has some wooded area. The city is situated in the Nan Basin, which is part of the Chao Phraya Watershed.
What is the best time to visit Phitsanulok Province?
Phitsanulok is in the tropical part so it has the rather hot weather all the year and also has the rather high rainfall in the rainy season. The best time to visit Phitsanulok is October when the Nan River is full. This also coincides with the traditional Long-tailed Boat Races which are usually held in October. The fair is held in front of Wat Phra SiRatanamahathat. Robes are placed over the Phra Buddha Chinarat, and there are contests of boat processions and races with scores of boats.
|Name of Association||Contact Address / Phone No||Activity|
|Phitsanulok Chamber of Commerce||Address: Visuthkasat Rd., Muang district, Phitsanulok province 65000
Tel: + 66 (0) 55 212 102
Source: Chamber of Commerce Act (2007)
|Name: Federation of Thai Industries (Phitsanulok Chapter)||Address: 292 Sukhothai-Nakornsawan bypass Rd., BaanKrang sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province 65000
Tel: + 66 (0) 55 216 966, +66 (0) 7 848 1903
Source: Federation of Thai Industries Act (1987)
|Name: Phitsanulok Tourism Association
|Address: 7th Floor, Phitsanulok Governor’s Office (New Building), Muang district, Phitsanulok province 65000
Tel: + 66 (0) 81 675 7077
Number of popular from registration record, percent change and density by district: 2007 – 2009
The majority ethnicity in the city is Thai. Others in the city consider themselves of Mon decent. The vast majority of residents of Phitsanulok speak Central Thai. Some residents speak English as well. The people of Phitsanulok are predominantly Theravada Buddhists (as are 95% of the Thai population as a whole), although some minority religions are practiced.
Source: Phitsanulok Local Administration, Ministry of Interior
Phitsanulok province is regarded as a strategic location where the Indo-China intersection cuts across. As a consequence, there are two projects to utilize the strategic potential to develop the province. One is the Indo-China Intersection Development project and another is the establishment of Logistics Center of Indo-China Intersection.
Indo-China Intersection Development Project
The resolution of the Cabinet’s meeting in Chiang Rai on 29th July 1997 shows the approval of northern region development strategy as follows:
1) Revival and reservation of natural resource, environment and culture;
2) Development of people and society;
3) Development of areas with potential that can support linkage to neighboring countries Among these, Phitsanulok is set to develop as linkage of East – West Corridor by making protocol for infrastructure and economic linkage development for Phichit, Petchaburi Uttaradit, Sukhothai and Kampangphet that is in line with city growth rate.
4) Restructuring of agricultural and industrial production
Phitsanulok and its vicinity are set up as developing area for “Indo-China Intersection” covering Sukhothai, Phitsanulok, Phitchit, Phetchabun and linked economic areas as Tak, Kamphaeng Phet and Uttaradit. However, this development must consider linkage between existing economic areas as Nakorn Sawan and Khon Kaen. Therefore, National Economic and Social Development Board was assigned to study and collect information in the area.
Development of Chiang Rai as a gate to neighbouring countries by developing Mae Sai-Kun Ming route and Chiangsan Port, tourism network under the Greater Mekong Sub Region Cooperation (GMS) or “North-South Tourism Corridor”, Mae Sod border, Tak and Mae Sai border, Chiang Rai and linkage between the Greater Mekong Sub – Region Cooperation (GMS) economic cooperation (economic hexagonal area) and economic rectangular.
GMS Ministerial Meeting on 11 -13th January 2000 has resolved to set up new strategy to focus on East-West Economic Corridor linking Myanmar – Thailand – Lao People’s Democratic Republic – Vietnam as pilot project of GMS (Cambodia, Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Vietnam, Southern China (Yunnan), and Thailand). Also, the area will be expanded to Myanmar to complete idea of Economy Bridge to link China Sea with Andaman Sea in the future.
Urge concrete development of North-South Economic Corridor linking Thailand-Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Southern China.
Establishment of Logistics Center of Indo-China Intersection Project
In 2005, Phitsanulok Province Office engaged University of Thai Chamber of Commerce to study and design logistics system in the province to accommodate development of Indo-China Intersection area and economic growth in the region. The university as the project consultant submitted the final report summarizing the findings as follows;
1. Distribution Center (DC) should be established in these following phases:
Phase 1: From 2005 onward, Distribution Center is established.
Phase 2: From 2007 -2017, the Center will be developed for multimodal
Phase 3: From 2012 – 2017, the Center will be developed as ICD.
Phase 4: From 2015 – 2022, the Center will be developed as LCS.
• Phase1: To establish the DC requires an investment of 530 million baht with break even period of 8 years and yield of 10% in 10 years.
• There are 3 appropriate places ranging in order of suitability as Ban Bungpra 89.8% , Ban Tengnam, Hua Ror sub-district 74.2% and Tha Tong sub-district 65.8%.
2. The consultant has presented 2 additional parts for the project for the province to consider according to readiness and economic condition as follows;
2.1 Phitsanulok vegetable and fruit central market project
• Phitsanulok has potential in developing as regional agricultural market for vegetable and fruit with following activities:
• Trade and exchange of agricultural production
• Market information provider
• Place for selecting products
• Provide production for exporter
Appropriate location is in Don Thong sub-district, Muang District where market exists as Thai Charoen Market.
2.2 Safe Parking Lot Project for truck terminal for travelers to other regions having several facilities such as food center, parking lot, shops and travel information, service station and residence for 24 hours.
• 5 appropriate areas
• Area before Naresuan University (Highway no. 117)
• South of Naresuan University on Highway no. 117
• Eastern area of Muang District on junction of route no.11 and 12
• North of Muang District
• North Muang District at Don Thong sub-district (Highway no. 11)
Source: Guidebook of Phitsanulok 2009
Related laws, regulations and incentives in doing business in the province
Zoned in BOI zone 3, interested entrepreneurs will enjoy the following benefits;
Tax and Duty Privileges:
• Exemption of import duty on machinery.
•Corporate income tax exemption for 8 years provided that a project with capital investment of 10 million baht or more (excluding cost of land and working capital) obtains ISO 9000 or similar international standard certification within 2 years from its start-up-date, otherwise the corporate income tax exemption will be reduced by 1 year.
•Exemption of import duty exemption on raw or essential materials used in the manufacturing of export products for 5 years.
•Deduction from net profit of 25 percent of the project’s infrastructure installation or construction costs in addition to normal depreciation, and such deductions can be made from the net profit of one or several years within 10 years form the date of first revenue derived from the promoted activity.
Special Privileges for investors in Zone 3 (36 provinces):
•50 per cent reduction of corporate income tax for 5 years after the exemption period.
•Double deduction from taxable income of transportation, electricity and water costs for 10 years from the date of first revenue derived from promoted activity.
•75 percent import duty reduction on raw or essential materials used in manufacturing for domestic sales for 5 years, based on annual approval (This incentive is not available to projects in Laem Chabung Industrial Estate and industrial estates or promoted industrial zones in Rayong province.)
Labor force and labor laws
Minimum wage (if there is): 163 THB per day (as of 1 January 2011)
Remarks about the labor (relative availabilities, specialization…):
Number of Employed Persons Aged 15 years and over by occupation, quarterly and sex in 2009 shows that there are in the fourth quarter 490,700 labors in Phitsanulok province. 190,500 people are skilled agricultural and fishery workers. 93,600 people are service workers and shop and market sales workers. 79,700 people worked in elementary occupation. And 55,200 people are craft and related trade workers.
Source: Statistical tables, Labour Force Survey: 2552-2553, Provincial level, National Statistical Office
Phitsanulok is a good starting point for a visit to the World Heritage site at nearby Sukhothai. The city can be reached by both rail and air (Phitsanulok Airport), and is on the intersection of several major highways linked between Northern, Northeastern and Central region of Thailand: Highway No.11 (Ta Khli – Chiang Mai), Highway No. 12 (Mae Sot – Mukdahan) and Highway No. 117 (Phitsanulok – Nakhon Sawan).
From Bangkok use Highway number 1 (Phahonyothin ) at Wang Noi turn to Highway number 32 via Ayuthya, Ang Thong, Sing Buri, Chai Nart, then reach Nakorn Sawan then turn to Highway number 117 to Phitsanulok. The distance is 370 kilometers. Or at Chai Nart turn right to Highway number 11 ( Taklee to Tak Fah ) about 160 kilometers then turn to Highway number 12 about 17 kilometers to Phitsanulok. The distance is 450 kilometers.
Trains from Bangkok to Phitsanulok: there are trains from Bangkok to Phitsanulok every day from 07.05 am to 11.30 pm, 14 times a day.
There are express train (Sprinter from Bangkok to Phitsanulok every day from 08.25 am to 11.10 pm , 5 times a day.
Trains from Phitsanulok to Bangkok: there are trains from Phitsanulok to Bangkok every day from 02.05 am to 11.29 pm, 14 times a day.
There are express train (Sprinter) from Phitsanulok to Bangkok every day from 02.05 am to 11.00 pm , 4 times a day.
For more information contact Phitsanulok Train station Tel.66-55-258005 or Hua Lampong Train station (Bangkok) Tel.662-2237010 Ext.5100-1
There are buses from north bus station (Bangkok) to Phitsanulok from 01.00 pm to 10.00 pm about every hour.
There are buses from Phitsanulok to Bangkok from 06.30 am to 10.00 pm about every hour.
For more information cantact Phitsanulok bus station Tel.66-55-242430 or north Bangkok bus station Tel.662-9378055
Besides there are other first class air-conditioned buses for service.
The main channels for communication in the city are television and radio, although internet use is emerging in Phitsanulok. The following public television and radio stations are broadcast from Phitsanulok:
• Sathaanii Witthayu Krajaisiang Thahaan Aakaat ( Radio Station), 954 AM and 95.75, in the City of PhitsanulokAir Force
• Witthayu Kong Phon Thahaan Raap Thii Sii (4th Infantry Division), 1377 AM, at Fort Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat
• Sathaanii Witthayu Phitaksantiraat (Communications Division, Royal Thai Police), 1422 AM, in Phitsanulok City
• ARMY-5 (television channel 5, owned and operated by the Royal Thai Army)
• PRD-11 (television channel 11, owned and operated by the Government Public Relations Department)
Internet Network and Cellular Network are very good.
As the cross-road between the northern and central regions of the country, it has long been important both for political and strategic reasons the Nan and Khwae Noi Rivers both flowed through the city, making it a strategic gateway to northern Thailand. Phitsanulok is administratively divided into the following districts: Muang, Wang Thong, Phrom Phiram, Bang Krathum, Bang Rakam, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai, Chat Trakan and Noen Maprang with a homogeneity in tradition and culture giving business opportunity to manufacturers and dealers in agriculture, handicrafts etc. The section on economy describes these business opportunities further.
In Phitsanulok province, there are approximately 100 logistics entrepreneurs. Most of them provide inter-provincial transportation service by vans and trucks. There are only a few companies registering with Phitsanulok Provincial Transport Office. Size of most of the companies is small since they own in average 1-5 vans per company. Some of the list of transport companies is as follows:
|Name of Logistics Company||Contact Address / Phone No.||Type of service|
|Arthit Siam Transport Co., Ltd.
|61/4 Moo4 Wat Chan district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province||Inter-provincial transportation service
|Sri Pipat Phitsanulok Limited Partnership (1989||195 Moo 5 Donthong sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province||Inter-provincial transportation service
|Yung Thong Transport Limited Partnershi
|291 Moo 1 Baan Krang sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province||Inter-provincial transportation service
|Yong Phitsanulok Transport Co., Ltd
|24/13 Rajamanu Rd., Naimuang sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province||Inter-provincial transportation service
|Phitsanulok Transport (1992) Co., Ltd
|339 Bharommatrai – Lokkanard 2 Rd., Naimuang sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province||Inter-provincial transportation service
|Chaloem Boonbung Transport Limited Partnershi||544/2 Moo 15 Wang Thong sub-district, Wangthong district, Phitsanulok province||Inter-provincial transportation service (animal feed)
Towed – trucks
The per capita Gross Provincial product of Phitsanulok province has been increasing at the rate of 4% for lats three years. This supported by increasing rate of per capita GDP from 54,292 million baht to 61,661 million baht gives an immense business opportunity to the players in the luxury goods segment as well.
GPP statistics 2009 at current market price by economic activities (Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board) shows that the leading sectors which contribute to GPP are:
|• Agriculture, hunting and forestry||(16,724 million baht)|
|• Public Administration and defense; compulsory social security fund||(6,971 million baht)|
|• Education||(6,412 million baht)|
|• Manufacturing||(6,162 million baht)|
|•Construction||(3,255 million baht)|
Key Business Sectors and Major Products
Agricultural & agro-processing sector
Phitsanulok is the province of agriculture especially the agronomy namely corn (maize), cassava and soybean while rice can be grown both in season and out of season. The planted area in 2008/ 2009 of major rice divided into 2,582,034 rai which can produce 1,586,917 tons of non-glutinous rice and 64,825 rai which can produce 36,262 tons of glutinous rice.
Maize is an important agronomy of the province. With 345,363 rai planted area, farmers can produce 277,941 tons (average 880 kilograms/ rai). While with 108,230 rai planted area, farmers can produce 62,700 tons of sugarcane (10,179 kilograms/ rai). And soybean, Phitsanulok’s important economic crop, with 18,359 rai planted area can produce 5,211 tons (average 279 kilograms/ rai).
Statistics of industrial establishments reveals the increasing in number of agricultural industry from 90 in 2008 to 105 plants/ factories in 2009.
Source: Phitsanulok Provincial Statistics Report 2010
Manufacturing sector contributes 6,162 million baht to the Gross Provincial Products of Phitsanulok province in 2009. Leading types of industries of Phitsanulok province are Transport, Agriculture, Machinery and Equipment, Non-metallic and Metal products. Number of plants/ factories of each industry shown as follow:
Source: Phitsanulok Provincial Industrial Office
|Major products:||Leading Entrepreneur/ company (by employees)|
|Paddy boiling and dryin||Thanarat – Tanyakit Co., Ltd.
46/1 Moo 4 Koksalud sub-district, Bangkratoom district, Phitsanulok province
|Grain drying||Thanawat Rice Mill Co., Ltd.
15 Singhawat Rd., Moo 11, Tha-Chang sub-district, Prompiram district, Phitsanulok province
|Rice Miller||Lim Charoen Thanyakit Limited Partnership
57 Moo 7, Tah Tal sub-district, Bangkratoom district, Phitsanulok province
|Sugar||Phitsanulok Sugar Co., Ltd.
8/8 SantiBanterng – Bang Kratoom Rd., Moo 8, Pailom sub-district, Bangkratoom
|Animal Feed||Charoen Pokphand Industry Co., Ltd.
178 Phitsanulok – Lomsak, Moo 4, Samor Kae sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province
|Knitting products and garment||S T C Garment Co., Ltd.
424 Moo 2, Prompiram sub-district, Prompiram district, Phitsanulok province
|Asphalt emulsion||Tipco Asphalt Public Company Limited
271 Phitsanulok – Bangrakum Rd., Moo 15, Bangrakum sub-district, Bangrakum district, Phitsanulok province
|Wiring harnesses||Thai Arrow Product Co., Ltd.
230 Moo 7, Hua Roe sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province
Phitsanulok province is abundant for its forests. As a consequence, the province has many national parks which become famous tourist attractions such as:
1. National Parks
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park
Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park
Chat Trakan Waterfall National Park
2. Wildlife Sanctuary Areas: Paa Khoa Noi – Khao Pradoo Wildlife Sanctuary Areas
Principal water resource for agriculture and fishing of the province comprises of Nan River, Yom River, Keg River and Kwae Noi River.
In addition to its importance in the history of Thailand, Phitsanulok features rivers, mountains, and forests, ideal for lovers of natural beauty. Apart from its exceptional natural charisma, Phitsanulok is home to a number of historic sculptures of the Buddha and other religious artwork including theBuddha Chinnarat, the Buddha Chinnasri, the Phra Sri Satsada.
Phitsanulok provides visitors with an opportunity to explore notable chapters of Thailand’s history. For example, Phitsanulok contains evidence of an ancient community dating back between 2,000 and 4,000 years, including ancient stone axes. In addition, the old temple of Wat Chula Mani, situated 5 kilometers south of the city, was built even before the Sukhothai Kingdom came to power in the 12th century.
Once named Song Khwae, meaning two rivers, Phitsanulok is situated between the Nan and Khwae Noi Rivers, which is also a strategic location between Thailand’s central plains, northern mountains, and northeastern plateau. Phitsanulok is therefore a natural hub and an ideal base for travelers wishing to explore the lower North and western Northeast. However, Phitsanulok is more than just a stopover for tourists; it is a province with a number of tourism opportunities. While most of Phitsanulok’s terrain is flatlands, one third of the area is covered by mountains in the north and east, where national parks and waterfalls await exploration.
Other prominent features of the temple include the large pearl-inlaid doors of the Wihan made in circa 1756 by royal craftsmen of the late Ayutthaya Period. Another is Phra Attharot an 8-metre-tall, standing statue cast in the same period and Phra Phutthachinarat (circa 1257). Originally housed in a large Wihan, today it stands in the open air as the covering building has all crumbled away with only a few large columns standing.
The King Naresuan the Great Shrine is located at the site which was once the Chan Palace, the birthplace of Naresuan the Great. Within the shrine is a statue of the king in the posture of declaring independence from Burma. The entire site of the palace has been restored and renovated as a major historical area.
House-boats on Nan River are a landmark of the province. On both banks of the river which runs from north to south past the town are lined with hundreds of such floating rafts, a scene representing the serene ambience of the community.
Attractions on Phitsanulok-Lom Sak Route (Highway No. 12)
Cutting through the eastern mountain ranges of Phitsanulok, the route offers several spots of attractions including waterfalls and forested areas within the Thung Salaeng Luang National Park. To visit these places transport can be hired from operators in town, the most convenient and popular means of travelling.
The Phu Soi National Park stretches along the Thai-Laotian border within Chat Trakan district with the highest peak being 2,102 metres above sea level and the climate cool most of the year. One of the most attractive features of the park is the savanna amid dense pineries. During the rainy season wild flowers run riot all over the area. There are also beautiful waterfalls amid dense foliage, eminently suitable for jungle walks. However park rangers should be contacted to act as guides to the various attractions. As overnighting is necessary, camping equipment should also be prepared.
Phu Hin Rong Kla is an outstanding national park with unique scenic attractions and historical significance.
Many buildings and structures are reminders of those struggles. The living quarters, schools, hospitals and other facilities of the former Communists have not changed much since those far-off days. There are also a couple of beautiful waterfalls. The prevalent rocky grounds are strangely-shaped, some of which having deep crevices as if created by earthquakes. Others are full of jagged rock formations spreading over a wide area.
In Thailand, R&D and technological centers are categorized as a part of the university service. In the lower northern part of Thailand, Naresuan University plays a significant role in contributing to the national educational effort and maintains a strong reputation as one of the top government educational institutions in Thailand. NU believes that high quality academic programs and life-long learning will bring International Recognition to the University. Its vision is to become a research-based university before 2017.
Naresuan University (NU) currently houses 16 Faculties, 2 Schools, and 1 College. The university offers a wide range of disciplines in three Clusters: Health Sciences, Science and technology, and Social Sciences.
Presently, 88 curricula are offered in 56 Departments. The health sciences cluster is comprised of faculty of allied health sciences, faculty of medical sciences, faculty of pharmaceutical
sciences, faculty of public health, faculty of dentistry, faculty of medicine and faculty of nursing. The science and technology cluster is comprised of faculty of agriculture, natural resources and environment, faculty of engineering, faculty of architecture and faculty of science. And the social sciences cluster is comprised of faculty of education, faculty of law, faculty of social sciences, the school of renewable energy technology, faculty of humanities and faculty of management and information sciences.
Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University
With the vision to have the highest standard for an academic university, and to serve the community for the sustaining development, Pibulsonkram Rajabhat University provide knowledge on various sciences in the faculty of education, the faculty of agricultural technology, the faculty of industrial technology humanities and social sciences, the faculty of management and the faculty of science.
|Name of Leading Centers||Contact Address / Phone No.|
|Division of Research Administration (DRA), Naresuan University||Address:
99 Moo 9, Tha Pho sub-district, Muang district, Phitsanulok province 65000
Tel. + 66 (0) 55 968 614
Fax.: + 66 (0) 55 968 604
|Name: Pibulsonkram Rajabhat University||Address:
66 Wangjan, Tambon Naimuang, Muang District, Phitsanuloke 65000
156 Moo 5, Tambon Phlaichumphon, Muang District, Phitsanuloke 65000Contact number:
Tel. +66 (0) 55 258 584
+66 (0) 55 251 206
+66 (0) 55 259 927
Mobile +66– 98–589–836
At present Phitsanulok plays the important role as the center of air and land transportation, also the commercial city in the northern of Thailand.